## Vibration : Measure Acceleration, Velocity or Displacement?

When using vibration data, especially in conjunction with modelling systems, the measured data is often needed as an acceleration, as a velocity and as a displacement. Sometimes different analysis groups require the measured signals in a different form. Clearly, it is impractical to measure all three at once even if we could. Physically it is nigh on impossible to put three different types of transducer in the same place.

## Impact Hammer Double Hit – An Investigation

An Impact Hammer double hit is viewed as a common problem, and most hammer impact testing software offers a "Double hit" rejection function. Signals captured with double impacts are not…

## Some Basic Vibration Signal Qualities

This article discusses quantifying basic vibration signals from three aspects: signal type, signal level, and signal display format. Mathematical expressions and typical applications are also introduced. A simple harmonic vibration…

## Processing pump data – a classic case of amplitude modulation

When dealing with some vibration data from a pump, we observed some strange phenomena in the data. It turned out to be a classic case of amplitude modulation. Here we explain what that means.

## How Do I Measure Whole Body Vibration?

Whole Body Vibration (WBV) analysis for continuous vibration uses assessment criteria defined in the ISO2631 standard and the EEC vibration directive 2002/44/EC. These assessments are based on the processing of…

## How Do I Calibrate An Impact Hammer?

The intention of this article is not to present any new scientific theories or ground breaking techniques, but to introduce new users to hammer impact testing and remind seasoned technicians of a method…

## Sampling and Filtering Data for ISO8041 Compliance and Human Body Vibration Data Weighting

Various human body vibration measurements and assessments are defined in the ISO2631, ISO5349, ISO6954 standards and also in the EEC vibration directive 2002/44/EC. These assessments are based on the analysis…

## Three Methods For Analyzing Vibration In Rotating Components

In this post we will first look at how to process data from rotating machinery. Then we will focus on shaft or gear train twist. Let's look at 3 different…

## Generating speed v time information from noise & vibration signals

Picture the scenario; you have captured some noise & vibration data from a rotating machine. Typically, this might be noise in a vehicle cabin, but could have been anything from…

## How Do I Convert Between Acceleration, Velocity & Displacement?

One of the most searched for and read topics on the Noise & Vibration Measurement Blog is that of converting between measurements of acceleration, velocity and displacement. To help anyone…

## How do I find the natural frequency of an inlet manifold?

There are a number of ways to find the natural frequency (resonance) of a part like an automotive inlet manifold. Here are three different types of popular test techniques. But which one should you use and why?

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## What is the difference between Operating Deflection Shapes (ODS) and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA)?

ODS = Motion of structure vibrating naturally (for example bridge vibration) or when excited by an unknown force (for example generator vibration). Prosig’s Structural Animation software performs ODS analysis.

OMA = Modal Analysis
Prosig’s Modal Analysis software performs OMA. (more…)

## A Simple Step-by-step Guide To Bearing Vibration Analysis

Generally. when developing and testing bearings a simple step by step procedure should be followed.

## How To Calculate A Resultant Vector

When we are dealing with multiple measurements we often need to calculate a resultant vector to understand their combined effect. What do we mean by this? And how do we…

## Negative Frequencies – What Are They?

Normally when we are analysing a signal it is a purely real signal, that is it has no imaginary part. A classic example is of course a sine wave. When…

## How To Analyze Noise & Vibration In Rotating Machines

In this article we will look at the basic steps needed to measure noise & vibration in rotating machines. We won’t look in great detail at some of the techniques involved – we deal with these elsewhere on the blog. This material is suitable for a newcomer to the field who understands the basic concepts of noise & vibration analysis, but has not dealt with rotating machinery before. (more…)

## Converting Acceleration, Velocity & Displacement

From time to time I meet engineers who are interested in the conversions between acceleration, velocity and displacement. Often, they have measured acceleration, but are interested in displacement or vice versa. Equally, velocity is often used to find acceleration. This article outlines the nature of the conversion between these units and will suggest the preferred method for doing so. .

Figure 5: H1(f)

## A Simple Frequency Response Function

The following article will attempt to explain the basic theory of the frequency response function (FRF). This basic theory will then be used to calculate the frequency response function between two points on a structure using an accelerometer to measure the response and a force gauge hammer to measure the excitation.

Fundamentally a FRF is a mathematical representation of the relationship between the input and the output of a system.

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## Calculating Velocity Or Displacement From Acceleration Time Histories

It is quite straightforward to apply “classical” integration techniques to calculate either a velocity time history from an acceleration time history or the corresponding displacement time history from a velocity time history. The standard method is to calculate the area under the curve of the appropriate trace. If the curve follows a known deterministic function then a numerically exact solution can be found; if it follows a non-deterministic function then an approximate solution can be found by using numerical integration techniques such as rectangular or trapezoidal integration. Measured or digitized data falls in to the latter category. However, if the data contains even a small amount of low frequency or DC offset components then these can often lead to misleading (although numerically correct) results. The problem is not caused by loss of information inherent in the digitisation process; neither is it due to the effects of amplitude or time quantisation; it is in fact a characteristic of integrated trigonometric functions that their amplitudes increase with decreasing frequency.

## Acceleration, Velocity & Displacement Spectra – Omega Arithmetic

Accelerometers are robust, simple to use and readily available transducers. Measuring velocity and displacement directly is not simple. In a laboratory test rig we could use one of the modern potentiometer or LVDT transducers to measure absolute displacement directly as static reference points are available. But on a moving vehicle this is not possible.

## Examples Of Event Extraction And Removal

In many cases only significant events, such as bumps or other transients in a signal are of relevance. The objective is to be able to isolate these events in a meaningful manner so that they may be automatically recognised and either removed or extracted for analysis in a structured way.

There are two principle objectives initially: one is to be able to recognise an event and the other is to be able to mark it in some way so that subsequent software is able to operate on the actual event. We must also note that an event has a start and an end; the criterion we use to recognise the start may not necessarily be the same criterion we use to recognise the end. Searches for the start and end points are carried out on a Reference Signal. How the reference signal is formed is discussed in detail later, it includes the original signal, various running statistical measures such as the dynamic RMS, differentiation for slope detection, integration and so on. In many cases the start criterion will be some check on the level achieved by the reference signal. By the time any check level has been detected then it is almost certain that the event started earlier! That is, a pre trigger capability is essential.