## How To Choose A Sample Rate For A Required Analysis Frequency Range

The relationship between sample rate and maximum frequency that can be analysed (called bandwidth) is a factor of 0.4. Or to look at it another way the sampling rate is…

## Order Cuts And Overall Level

Order cuts are taken from a set of FFTs, each one at a different rpm. The rms level is then found as the Square root of the Sum of the squares of each of the FFT values. Mathematically, if $x_{ks}$ is the modulus (magnitude) of the $k^{th}$ value of the FFT at speed s for $k = 1,\dots,N-1$ then the rms value at that speed is given by $rms_s = \sqrt{\sum_{k=0}^{N-1}{x_{ks} ^2}}$

This takes into account the entire energy at that speed both the order and the non order components, including any noise.

## Audio Equalisation Filter & Parametric Filtering

When working with audio signals a common requirement is to be able to equalise, cut or boost various frequency bands. A large number of hardware devices on the market provide this capability. The key aspect is that such filters are able to control bandwidth, centre frequency and gain separately. There are broadly two classes of filter used, a “shelving” filter and an “equalising “filter (also known as a “peak” filter). A shelving filter is akin to low pass and high pass filters. An equalising filter is like a bandpass or band reject filter.

## Cleaning Up Data

When we have a very noisy signal with a large number of spikes and signal bursts then if all else fails try Median Filtering. This is a technique often used in cleaning up pictures. The operation is almost childishly simple in concept but we will save the details until we have examined an example.