## A Different Way Of Averaging – Time Synchronous Averaging

Assuming one wants a frequency spectrum from an acquired time measurement, it is generally accepted that averaging of a signal in the time domain is not very useful due to…

## Waterfall Analysis: Frequency Spectrum or Order Spectrum?

This article addresses two basic approaches to analyzing rotating machinery during transient (sweeping rpm) conditions.  The first is the traditional method which uses Frequency (FFT) Spectrum analysis at target rpm…

## Understanding Windowing And Overlapping Analysis

[latexpage]The following article was inspired by a question asked by a reader regarding my previous article - Data Windows : What, why and when?. Specifically, the reader asked "Could you please…

## Developing an Algorithm for Tick Detection

An investigation was made of a sample of automotive components where some were exhibiting a high frequency “tick” or rattle during each operating cycle. This feature could be heard above the normal operating noise. The problem this posed was to measure and analyze components in an objective fashion and classify components as “good” or “bad”.

## Aliasing, Orders and Wagon Wheels

These days most people collecting engineering and scientific data digitally have heard of and know of the implications of the sample rate and the highest observable frequency in order to avoid aliasing. For those people who are perhaps unfamiliar with the phenomenon of aliasing then an Appendix is included below which illustrates the phenomenon.

In saying that most people are aware of the relationship concerning sample rate and aliasing this generally means they are aware of it when dealing with constant time step sampling where digital values are measured at equal increments of time. There is far less familiarity with the relevant relationship when dealing with orders, where an order is a multiple of the rotational rate of the shaft. For example second order is a rate that is exactly twice the current rotational speed of the shaft. What we are considering here then is the relationship between the rate at which we collect data from a rotating shaft and the highest order to avoid aliasing.

The relationship depends on how we do our sampling as we could sample at constant time steps (equi-time step sampling), or at equal angles spaced around the shaft (equi-angular or synchronous sampling). We will consider both of these but first let us recall the relationship for regular equi-time step sampling and the highest frequency permissible to avoid aliasing. This is often known as Shannons Theorem [Learn more about Claude E Shannon].

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## Don’t Let Spikes Spoil Your Data

In many real-world applications it is impossible to avoid “spikes” or “dropouts” in data that we record. Many people assume that these only cause problems with their data if they become obvious. This is not always the case. Consider the following two time histories.

## A Weighting. And B. And C.

Some devices, particularly digital tape recorders, apply A-weighting to all their data to achieve acceptable data compression. This is fine unless you want to analyse the unweighted data or apply a different weighting factor. Using Prosig’s DATS software, it is a simple task to instruct the WEIGHT module to either unweight the data or remove one weighting factor and apply another.

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