When engineers talk about the ‘Load Spectrum’ what do they mean?
There is no simple answer, simple terms like load and spectrum can be used in different situations and therefore to mean different things. However the most common definition of load spectrum is as follows… (more…)
Much confusion revolves around linear and non-linear numbers. The following outlines the mathematical process to convert from a number expressed in dB to a linear quantity. How do we convert to decibels and back again? (more…)
The Auto Spectral Density or Auto RMS spectrum analyses uses Fourier Transforms to process optionally overlapped sections of the input data. The result of each Fourier analysed section is called a periodogram. We then process all the resulting periodograms to produce a spectral result. (more…)
The following tutorial shows in detail how to use Prosig DATS to export data in a non-linear format.
DATS stores all data in linear format. When you export data you are exporting the raw stored data. Therefore, to export data in a non-linear fashion we must convert the data to non-linear scale (dB for our example) and then export to the desired format, in this case CSV. (more…)
What type of accelerometer should I use? What are the advantages/disadvantages of a charge mode accelerometer, an IEPE accelerometer and a bridge based accelerometer?
There are so many types of accelerometer that is often difficult to know what type of accelerometer to use. An IEPE accelerometer will have a high pass filter at about 5Hz. The charge type will, by it’s nature have what is effectively a high pass filter at about 0.1Hz. Therefore neither type will show DC levels. The charge type will usually have a lower frequency bandwidth than the IEPE type. Charge accelerometers can be used at higher temperatures however. (more…)
The DATS Modal Analysis software consists of Hammer Impact Testing, Modal Analysis & Structural Animation (often referred to as Operational Deflection Shapes or ODS and Running Modes). Having measured and…
In the process of looking at some order data, a question about the accuracy of the measurement of the signal level of discrete frequency signals which were close to the general noise level. To answer this question, a small DATS worksheet was created which generated 2 signals. The first signal was a 35 Hz sinusoid which, by itself the spectrum level was measured to be approximately -9 dB (ref 1 V) as seen in Figure 1.
Case Study: What can I do if the transducer I am using has a non-linear sensitivity over its measuring range?
Recently a PROSIG user wanted to measure a specific temperature parameter on a running engine. The transducer being used was one of the engine sensors built into the engine operating system to minimize engine emissions and maximize fuel economy. Unfortunately, the sensitivity of this transducer was not constant over the desired temperature range. The question then became, how can the output from this non-linear transducer be used to accurately measure the desired temperature parameter? (more…)
There are a number of ways to find the natural frequency (resonance) of a part like an automotive inlet manifold. Here are three different types of popular test techniques. But which one should you use and why?
James Wren (Prosig UK) provides a step-by-step guide to performing a Hammer Impact Test on a structure using Prosig's DATS software and P8000 data acquisition hardware. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YrCM3H0_NpE
We are using the third octave band filter at very low frequencies (~1Hz) and I noticed that the response of the filter could introduce very significant errors for short or transient signals. Looking a bit more in details at the function, the help says:
“For audio work ISO standards use a reference frequency of 1kHz not 1Hz”
Does that implies that for non-audio work, a reference frequency of 1Hz should be applied? If yes, is it possible to change this reference frequency in the dats function?
Dr Mercer replied…
Essentially there is no problem and no need to change the reference frequency provided you use Base 10 mode and not Base 2. Base 10 is the ANSI S1.11-2004 preferred scheme. (more…)
“How do I balance a shaft?” seems like a fairly straightforward question, but there are a number of things that we need to understand first. Here we look at a number of key concepts that need to be understood in order perform balancing.
What does balance mean?
Well broadly speaking to balance a shaft, mass must be added or removed at certain angles. The concept being that the centre of gravity and rotational centre of the shaft will be equal when the shaft is balanced. (more…)