## Relative signal levels of a sinusoid with and without background noise

In the process of looking at some order data, a question about the accuracy of the measurement of the signal level of discrete frequency signals which were close to the general noise level.  To answer this question, a small DATS worksheet was created which generated 2 signals.  The first signal was a 35 Hz sinusoid which, by itself the spectrum level was measured to be approximately -9 dB (ref 1 V) as seen in Figure 1.

## Calibrating an Accelerometer with a Prosig P5000 system

Here we look at how to calibrate an accelerometer using a Prosig P5000 system. Put the wax on the shaker top. Place the accelerometer in the axis you wish to…

## Why does Auto-Zero have no effect for IEPE sensors?

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• Post category:P8000

The Prosig P8000 Auto-Zero function is used to remove the DC content of a signal.

For example, if you have a sine wave that is ±5 volts about 0 volts it has no DC offset. But if you have a sine wave with ±5 volt amplitude about 3 volts, then it has a 3 volt DC offset. Below is an example of these two sinewaves.

## Negative Frequencies – What Are They?

Normally when we are analysing a signal it is a purely real signal, that is it has no imaginary part. A classic example is of course a sine wave. When…

## Understanding Filter Characteristics

Recently when discussing with an engineering student the characteristics of filters, it became clear that some confusion exists around this subject area. This note attempts to explain the differences between types of filter and the effects of the parameters of those filters. (more…)

## Vibration : Measure Acceleration, Velocity or Displacement?

When using vibration data, especially in conjunction with modelling systems, the measured data is often needed as an acceleration, as a velocity and as a displacement. Sometimes different analysis groups require the measured signals in a different form. Clearly, it is impractical to measure all three at once even if we could. Physically it is nigh on impossible to put three different types of transducer in the same place.

## Understanding Windowing And Overlapping Analysis

[latexpage]The following article was inspired by a question asked by a reader regarding my previous article - Data Windows : What, why and when?. Specifically, the reader asked "Could you please…

## What Is The Difference Between Single Ended & Differential Inputs?

Prosig P8000 systems use differential inputs, but what are they and why are they so special? This subject is not always fully understood and, therefore, the focus of this article…

## Phase Angle Between Signals

The following article was written in response to a question from a visitor to the website. The gentleman in question had been reading some of the Prosig signal processing articles and had the following question.

```Dear Sir,

to know the options available in hardware and/or software for measurement/calculation
of phase angle of first harmonic of a vibration signal which is
sinosoidal. The phase angle is the relative phase angle difference
between the signal and the tacho - one into rpm signal.

Regards.
etc.```

## What Is A Fourier Transform?

A Fourier Transform takes a signal and represents it either as a series of cosines (real part) and sines (imaginary part) or as a cosine with phase (modulus and phase form). As an illustration, we will look at Fourier analysing the sum of the two sine waves shown below. The resultant summed signal is shown in the third graph.

(more…)

## Methods To Remove Spikes From Data

For various reasons data captured in the real world often contains spikes that will give erroneous results when analysed. The DATS software package provides various ways of editing and to remove spikes from data. Let us consider a real life case history.